MySQL 数据库中删除重复记录的方法总结

演示数据

表结构:

mysql> desc demo;
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field | Type             | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id    | int(11) unsigned | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| site  | varchar(100)     | NO   | MUL |         |                |
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

数据:

mysql> select * from demo order by id;
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  1 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  2 | http://YITU.org        |
|  3 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
|  4 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  5 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

当没有创建表或创建索引权限的时候,可以用下面的方法:

如果你要删除较旧的重复记录,可以使用下面的语句:

mysql> delete from a 
    -> using demo as a, demo as b
    -> where (a.id > b.id)
    -> and (a.site = b.site);
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.12 sec)

mysql> select * from demo order by id;
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  1 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  2 | http://YITU.org        |
|  3 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

如果你要删除较新的重复记录,可以使用下面的语句:

mysql> delete from a 
    -> using demo as a, demo as b
    -> where (a.id < b.id)
    -> and (a.site = b.site);
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.12 sec)

mysql> select * from demo order by id;
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  2 | http://YITU.org        |
|  4 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  5 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

你可以用下面的语句先确认将被删除的重复记录:

mysql> SELECT a.* 
    -> FROM demo a, demo b
    -> WHERE a.id > b.id
    -> AND (a.site = b.site);
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  1 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  3 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

如果有创建索引的权限,可以用下面的方法:

在表上创建唯一键索引:

mysql> alter ignore table demo add unique index ukey (site);
Query OK, 5 rows affected (0.46 sec)
Records: 5  Duplicates: 2  Warnings: 0

mysql> select * from demo order by id;
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  1 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  2 | http://YITU.org        |
|  3 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

重复记录被删除后,如果需要,可以删除索引:

mysql> alter table demo drop index ukey;
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.37 sec)
Records: 3  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

如果有创建表的权限,可以用下面的方法:

创建一个新表,然后将原表中不重复的数据插入新表:

mysql> create table demo_new as select * from demo group by site;
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.19 sec)
Records: 3  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> show tables;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_test |
+----------------+
| demo           |
| demo_new       |
+----------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from demo order by id;
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  1 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  2 | http://YITU.org        |
|  3 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
|  4 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  5 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from demo_new order by id;
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  1 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  2 | http://YITU.org        |
|  3 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

然后将原表备份,将新表重命名为当前表:

mysql> rename table demo to demo_old, demo_new to demo;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> show tables;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_test |
+----------------+
| demo           |
| demo_old       |
+----------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from demo order by id;
+----+------------------------+
| id | site                   |
+----+------------------------+
|  1 | http://www.CodeBit.cn  |
|  2 | http://YITU.org        |
|  3 | http://www.ShuoWen.org |
+----+------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

注意:使用这种方式创建的表会丢失原表的索引信息!

mysql> desc demo;
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type             | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(11) unsigned | NO   |     | 0       |       |
| site  | varchar(100)     | NO   |     |         |       |
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

如果要保持和原表信息一致,你可以使用 show create table demo; 来查看原表的创建语句,然后使用原表的创建语句创建新表,接着使用 insert … select 语句插入数据,再重命名表即可。

当然,如果要避免重复记录,最好的办法还是不要插入重复数据,可以参考本站另外一篇文章:MySQL 当记录不存在时插入(insert if not exists)